Tag Archives: Uber

What is Digital Transformation anyway?

Digital Transformation is the third wave of digital evolution.

What is Digital Transformation anyway?

GUEST POST from Howard Tiersky

The first wave was brochureware. Enterprises created websites that communicated their story. As simple as this idea is, it was revolutionary. The business value of providing instant sales and marketing material at the click of a mouse is hugely valuable.

The second wave was eCommerce. Enterprises connected customer-facing digital front-ends to their back-end systems, so that customers could engage in transactions directly via their browser or mobile device. This wave generated much more value than brochureware, because it reduced the cost of customer interaction, and removed friction from the user experience. Businesses who have mastered eCommerce have been able to trump former market leaders. In today’s world, if you can’t provide elegant digital options for the customer throughout their entire journey, you’re toast.

Now we find ourselves in the third wave: Digital Transformation. eCommerce added new pathways for pre-existing offerings, but companies going through digital transformation need to reinvent themselves for a digital age. Netflix made the transition from being a mail-order company to a streaming company. Though they still focus on their core value proposition of providing extended choices and increased convenience, their entire solution offering had to shift, along with their customer experience, pricing, contracts with suppliers, marketing, and more. Furthermore, given new methods of interacting with the consumer, it became practical for them to focus serious resources on content creation, as well. While the Netflix DVD-by-mail service was definitely eCommerce enabled (i.e. you could order DVDs via their web site), their digitally transformed value proposition is fundamentally impossible without digital.

Uber is doing the same thing for transportation. While plenty of taxi and limousine companies have apps that allow you to order their vehicles, Uber created a business model that was completely digitally focused. This meant that they didn’t need to own any vehicles or hire any drivers to become the largest ground transportation company in the world. It’s worth noting that Uber didn’t really go through a digital transformation, it was born digital. Digital Transformation is what pre-digital companies must undertake to compete in the newest wave of the digital age.

But even those companies that are “born digital” will need to focus on ongoing transformation. There are multiple examples of early digital successes, companies like Yahoo and MySpace, that failed to continue to transform.

Digital Transformation also requires a different mindset around where digital “lives” within the organization. You can visualize the way digital transformation works in the enterprises like this:

  • Wave 1 – Brochureware: Digital was part of marketing.
  • Wave 2 – eCommerce: Digital is a support service, creating digital pathways to pre-existing services like ordering, customer support, and billing.
  • Wave 3 – Digital Transformation: Digital reimagines the entire value proposition and business model of the company.

The goal of Digital in Wave 2 is to support the strategy and operations of the company by augmenting non-digital channels with more efficient and elegant digital alternatives. But in Wave 3, digital is driving the bus. The entire company — its value proposition and business model — is reimagined with digital at the center. This requires some substantial shifts in organizational structure, roles, and mindset; these shifts make companies hesitant to move towards true digital transformation. They engage in what is sometimes called Digital Decoration, that makes them seem progressive while protecting the “integrity” of their legacy business structures.

This is a losing strategy. There’s a long history of companies who decided to protect their existing models over supporting new ones. Kodak suffocated its early digital camera products; Blockbuster resisted focusing on digital delivery of entertainment. Western Union scoffed at the telephone.

In fact, here’s an example of an internal memo sent at Western Union:

“Why would any person want to use this ungainly and impractical device [a telephone] when he can send a messenger to the telegraph office and have a clear written message sent to any large city in the United States?”

Western Union opted out of the “digital transformation” of its era and I predict the same outcome for pre-digital companies who take a similar approach.

This article originally appeared on the Howard Tiersky blog
Image Credit: Pexels

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What Disruptive Innovation Really Is

What Disruptive Innovation Really Is

GUEST POST from Geoffrey A. Moore

I recently read an article in ZDnet by Sherin Shibu discussing disruptive innovation, primarily through the lens of Clay Christensen’s work at the Harvard Business School. The article itself is very sound, and yet I found myself disagreeing with it on a number of points. In this blog, I want to interleave what Shibu says (presented in standard font) with my own commentary (inserted in italics) so that readers can develop their own point of view from the interaction.

What is disruptive innovation?

Disruptive innovation theory is a cautionary concept for large, established companies: There’s danger in becoming too good at what you do best. Delivering to the mainstream market is good and all, but a disruptor could target a market underserved by your current product with a new business model.

For me, disruptive innovation has a much bigger footprint because it also underlies virtually all venture capital investment. Its fundamental promise is to release an enormous amount of trapped value by reengineering an established system or process. The reason it is a cautionary concept for large established companies is that they are the custodians of the legacy systems and processes that are trapping the value. Yes, they can reduce the overhead by optimizing what they have, but no, they cannot compete with a categorically better way of doing things.

Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen developed the concept of disruptive innovation in the 1990s with his groundbreaking book The Innovator’s Dilemma, and the theory became wildly popular in the decades to follow. But in some respects it has become a victim of its own success: “Despite broad dissemination, the theory’s core concepts have been widely misunderstood and its basic tenets frequently misapplied,” notes The Harvard Business Review.

Disruptive innovation is a process by which entrepreneurs break into a low-end or new market and create business models that are different from existing ones in those markets. Disruption has occurred when their business model becomes mainstream.

So, a new company targets an overlooked customer base — and manages to deliver a better product at a lower price point. At first, the incumbents don’t take the threat seriously, which allows the potential disruptors to gain a foothold. Then the disruptors target the incumbents’ mainstream customers. If the potential disruptors create something that the mainstream adopts in volume, they have successfully disrupted the market.

I think this reading of the model overemphasizes the need to attack the low end of the market. Yes, that is a proven path, but it is not the only one. The iPhone disrupted from the high end, for example, as has Tesla.

What is disruptive innovation not?

Defining disruptive innovation isn’t easy and not everyone is going to agree on every example. Classic disruptive innovation should not simply describe just any situation of upheaval. If a new company shakes things up a bit for incumbent competitors, that scene is not necessarily one of disruptive innovation — that could simply be a breakthrough. In order for this theory to have power and be used as an analytical and predictive model, it needs to be precisely defined.

My definition of disruptive innovation is one that overthrows and is incompatible with the existing business model or operating model of an industry. In the case of the iPhone, it was Apple’s ability to go over the top of the carrier to provide products and services directly to the consumer. In the case of Tesla, it is its ability to bypass the dealership model not only in sales but in services as well.

Christensen, for example, argued that Uber is not a disruptive innovator according to his definition. It fails to meet two requirements, in that it did not start in a low-end or new market. Instead, it built a name for itself in a mainstream market and then started drawing unserved customers with less expensive solutions. And being less expensive or creating an app to hail rides sustains the existing model rather than disrupts.

This is just wrong and shows the limitations of the “start at the low end” concept. Uber reengineered both the operating model and the business model of on-demand car transportation, allowing consumers to call a taxi to themselves, and allowing Uber to build a fleet of cars and drivers at no capital expense.

Not everyone thinks that’s the case and other perspectives can be found that argue Uber actually is a disruptive innovator. From this perspective, Uber started with a low-market foothold by offering on-demand black car services. It was only when the startup introduced UberX, a low-end market offering, that it was able to move into the mainstream.

What counts as disruption is up for debate, especially as Christensen’s theory is applied to shifting contexts.

In the case of Uber, focusing on the low end simply misses the point.

Why is it important to define disruptive innovation?

Disruption isn’t a fixed point; it’s the evolution of a product or service from the fringes of customers to the mainstream. It’s important to define it this way because then it becomes more about the experimental nature of the process than about the output. See, disruptive innovations don’t always succeed and not every successful company is a disruptor. The process is about building new business models previously unseen in the target industry and appealing to a more niche customer base at first.

In my view, disruptive innovation is a function of a breakthrough technology intersecting with a pool of trapped value, enabling the reengineering of a system or process that eliminates one or more whole categories of spend in its value chain. It is a categorical innovation as opposed to a product or marketing innovation.

Is disruptive innovation the primary way innovation operates?

No, it is not the primary factor of innovation. According to HBR, “disruption theory does not, and never will, explain everything about innovation specifically or business success generally.” It does, however, help predict which businesses will succeed and it provides a solid foundation for further research – it’s captured academic attention for 27 years.

I agree with the point that disruptive innovation is not the primary type. Most innovation is sustaining, meaning that it improves an existing system rather than overthrowing it—evolution, not revolution. What I disagree with wholeheartedly, on the other hand, is the notion that the theory helps predict which businesses will succeed. Historically, the advantage has gone to start-ups because they are unconflicted in their commitment to the new way. Established enterprises, however, have learned that they can neutralize start-ups if they are willing to be fast followers. Microsoft’s Azure is a superb example of a company that has done this. Disney’s response to Netflix is another good example, and it appears as if General Motors is on a comparable path toward neutralizing Tesla.

What is an example of disruptive innovation?

Netflix was around since 1997, and at first, it didn’t appeal to Blockbuster’s core clientele. Renting movies usually happened in person, and Netflix was all online. Plus, Netflix took a few days to deliver movies because selections came through the mail. Blockbuster could easily ignore Netflix because it didn’t have the brick-and-mortar infrastructure needed to dominate the market at that time.

This glosses over what was the initial disruptive innovation that Netflix provided with its home delivery model based on DVDs. The key differentiator at the beginning was designing out late fees.

Over time though, as streaming technology developed, Blockbuster’s target clients were drawn toward Netflix. The same impulsiveness that made renting a movie right away more desirable than getting a movie a few days later translated into wanting to watch movies with a click of a mouse instead of going to a physical location to rent a DVD. Disruptive innovation technology, in this case, streaming, goes hand in hand with implementing innovation.

There is another story playing out in Netflix’s transition from DVD shipping to streaming. It required the company to disrupt itself. This is an extraordinary ask, as most successful disruptive innovations attack someone else’s profit pool, not one’s own. Reed Hastings deserves enormous credit for leading the company through this change, and I would encourage the academy to focus its research lens on how in the world he was able to do so when so many CEOs have fallen short.

Are there any disruptive innovation technologies to keep an eye on?

Online learning is a technology to watch because it’s reaching a population that in-person learning can’t reach at a lower price point.

The main technologies to keep an eye on are the ones that tackle an underserved market and have the potential to expand their offerings to appeal to the mainstream.

Something like autonomous vehicles, for example, can seem innovative, but they aren’t disruptive according to the theory because they’ll be quickly absorbed into existing industries. The incumbent advantage is strong.

The important thing to remember is that innovation does not always lead to disruption.

I strongly support the idea that online education delivery has the power to disrupt the education market—again, a breakthrough technology intersecting with a boatload of trapped value. I think the point about autonomous vehicles is interesting as well because I agree they will be absorbed into the existing industries. But while they may not disrupt the automotive industry, I do think they can reengineer transportation and logistics.

Overall, I support Shibu’s main thesis which is that we have come to take disruptive innovation for granted and have become careless with how we apply the term. And while we part ways on how best to apply it, I still endorse Clay’s breakthrough insights in The Innovator’s Dilemma, which had a huge impact on a whole generation of companies in Silicon Valley.

That’s what I think. What do you think?

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Tapping into the Sharing Economy

How Collaborative Consumption Drives Sustainability

Tapping into the Sharing Economy: How Collaborative Consumption Drives Sustainability

GUEST POST from Art Inteligencia

In recent years, the concept of the sharing economy has gained significant traction, with many individuals and businesses embracing the idea of collaborative consumption. This shift towards sharing resources, goods, and services is not only changing the way we consume, but also driving sustainability efforts across various industries. By redefining traditional notions of ownership and promoting a culture of sharing, collaborative consumption is proving to be a key driver in the fight against environmental degradation and resource depletion.

Case Study 1: Uber and Lyft

One of the most well-known examples of collaborative consumption is the rise of ride-sharing platforms such as Uber and Lyft. These services have revolutionized the way people commute in urban areas, providing a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to traditional taxi services. By connecting riders with drivers who are already heading in the same direction, ride-sharing platforms reduce the number of cars on the road, leading to decreased congestion and lower carbon emissions. In addition, the sharing of rides helps to optimize the use of existing resources, making transportation more sustainable in the long run.

Case Study 2: Airbnb

Another compelling case study of collaborative consumption driving sustainability is Airbnb, the popular accommodation-sharing platform. By enabling individuals to rent out their spare rooms or entire homes to travelers, Airbnb promotes the efficient use of existing housing stock and reduces the need for new hotel developments. This not only benefits hosts financially but also helps to alleviate the strain on local infrastructure and resources. Additionally, Airbnb encourages a more personal and authentic travel experience, fostering connections between hosts and guests and promoting cultural exchange.


Overall, the sharing economy presents a promising avenue for promoting sustainability and reducing the environmental impact of our consumption habits. By embracing the principles of collaborative consumption, individuals and businesses can contribute to a more sustainable future while also benefiting from increased efficiency and cost savings. As we navigate the challenges of climate change and resource scarcity, tapping into the sharing economy may just be the key to creating a more resilient and equitable society for generations to come.

Bottom line: Futurology is not fortune telling. Futurists use a scientific approach to create their deliverables, but a methodology and tools like those in FutureHacking™ can empower anyone to engage in futurology themselves.

Image credit: Pixabay

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Why Empathy is Key to Human-Centered Design Success

Why Empathy is Key to Human-Centered Design Success

GUEST POST from Art Inteligencia

In today’s fast-paced, technologically driven world, there’s one ingredient that brings us back to our roots, keeping us human and connected – empathy. Empathy allows us to understand and share the feelings of others. In the sphere of design, this ability to place oneself in another’s shoes is not just beneficial, but pivotal for success, especially in achieving Human-Centered Design (HCD).

HCD, at its core, revolves around the users and their needs, requiring designers to claw out of their expertise, immerse themselves into the users’ world, and observe, adapt and innovate solutions that are appropriate, manageable, and desirable. This tight-knit relationship between empathy and HCD can be better unfolded through two enticing case studies – one, an iconic product, and the other, a service that transformed an industry.

Case Study 1: Apple’s iPod

It was empathy that set the foundations of the fascinating success story of Apple’s iPod. The marketplace was riddled with generic MP3 players, many with superior technology or features, yet the iPod rose from obscurity to become a household name.

Apple, under the leadership of Steve Jobs, didn’t simply see consumers needing a device to play music on the go. They saw users battling complex user interfaces, struggling with cumbersome file transfers, and yearning for a simpler, more immersive experience. This empathetic realization was leveraged by Apple. They designed a product with an easy-to-use navigation wheel and a seamless integration system through iTunes making music management effortless for users.

The iPod’s success hasn’t been around the ‘what’, but the ‘how’ and the ‘why’. Apple did not invent the MP3 player, they reinvented it by truly understanding the journey, emotions, and needs of the user.

Case Study 2: Uber

Uber has disrupted the traditional taxi industry by applying HCD extensively, underpinned by empathy. They didn’t just see the act of hailing a taxi as a mere logistical necessity, but as an emotional rollercoaster ridden with uncertainty, anxiety, and frustration.

Uber, with its service, brought transparency, reliability, and convenience. GPS integration gave customers real-time visibility about driver location, removing the uncertainty. Exact fare estimates made payment experiences much more predictable, lowering anxiety levels. The door to door service convenience made users feel cared for and valued, elevating customer satisfaction.

Uber didn’t invent taxi services; they redefined the taxi experience by empathetically understanding and solving customer pain points.


In both case studies, empathy was the driving force behind creating solutions that reshaped industries and defined a generation. Empathy directed the designers to uncover unmet needs, understand latent desires, and design solutions that weren’t just functionally superior, but emotionally resonant.

Empathy in HCD encourages us to see not just the personas or demographics, but the humans behind them – their emotions, their journeys, their stories, and their dreams. It is empathy that allows us to shift our design thinking from problem-focused to people-focused, from technology-centered to human-centered. And it is this shift that paves the way for more sustainable, thoughtful, and successful designs.

In the end, the surest route to design success isn’t a path lined with advanced technology or complex analytics, but with empathy – the fundamentally human ability to truly see, hear, and feel the people who will use the solutions we design.

Bottom line: Futurology is not fortune telling. Futurists use a scientific approach to create their deliverables, but a methodology and tools like those in FutureHacking™ can empower anyone to engage in futurology themselves.

Image credit: Pixabay

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Disruptive Innovation vs. Sustaining Innovation

Understanding the Difference

Disruptive Innovation vs. Sustaining Innovation

GUEST POST from Chateau G Pato

In today’s rapidly evolving business landscape, innovation is often seen as the key to success. Companies are constantly seeking ways to gain a competitive advantage and stay ahead of the curve. Two concepts that often come up in discussions about innovation are disruptive innovation and sustaining innovation. Understanding the difference between these two types of innovation is crucial for companies looking to navigate the ever-changing marketplace effectively. In this article, we will explore the distinctions between disruptive and sustaining innovation and provide two real-world case studies to illustrate their practical applications.

Disruptive Innovation

Disruptive innovation refers to the introduction of a new product, service, or business model that fundamentally changes the existing market dynamics. It often disrupts traditional industries, displacing established products or services. Disruptive innovations usually start by serving niche markets or addressing the needs of under-served customers, eventually gaining traction and undermining existing market leaders. They often offer unique value propositions or bring significant cost advantages, enabling them to capture previously overlooked customer segments.

One prominent case study of disruptive innovation is Uber. Before Uber entered the transportation industry, traditional taxi services dominated the market. However, Uber brought a revolutionary business model by leveraging technology to connect passengers directly with drivers using their own vehicles. This disruptive approach offered several advantages like lower fares, real-time tracking, and cashless payments, giving it a competitive edge over traditional taxi services. This innovation not only transformed the ride-hailing industry but also revolutionized urban transportation around the world.

Sustaining Innovation

In contrast to disruptive innovation, sustaining innovation refers to incremental improvements made to existing products, services, or business models. It focuses on enhancing features, quality, or performance, helping companies improve their current market position or maintain a competitive advantage. Sustaining innovation allows companies to meet customer demands, keep up with changing market trends, and strengthen their market share by appealing to existing customers.

Apple’s evolution in the smartphone industry provides a compelling case study for sustaining innovation. When the first iPhone was introduced in 2007, it completely transformed the mobile phone landscape. However, instead of betting everything on a single disruptive innovation, Apple consistently pursued sustaining innovation by releasing new iterations of the iPhone each year. These subsequent models offered incremental improvements like faster processors, better cameras, and enhanced user experiences. By continually enhancing their product, Apple was able to maintain its market dominance and keep customers engaged, despite fierce competition from rival smartphone manufacturers.

Understanding the Difference

Differentiating between disruptive and sustaining innovation is crucial for businesses looking to adapt and thrive in today’s dynamic market environment. Disruptive innovation represents breakthrough changes that challenge existing norms, while sustaining innovation represents iterative enhancements aimed at maintaining market leadership.

By understanding the difference between these two forms of innovation, companies can make informed decisions about their strategic direction. They can identify opportunities for disruptive innovation to explore new markets, attract under-served customers, and potentially disrupt established industries. Simultaneously, they can also focus on sustaining innovation to enhance their existing products or services, ensuring they stay relevant and competitive.


Disruptive innovation and sustaining innovation play distinct roles in driving business success. While disruptive innovation can revolutionize industries and create new markets, sustaining innovation is essential for maintaining market dominance and satisfying current customer demands. Striking the right balance between these two forms of innovation can shape a company’s growth and longevity in an ever-evolving market.

Bottom line: Futurology is not fortune telling. Futurists use a scientific approach to create their deliverables, but a methodology and tools like those in FutureHacking™ can empower anyone to engage in futurology themselves.

Image credit: Pexels

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What It Takes to be a Successful Digital Disruptor

What It Takes to be a Successful Digital Disruptor

GUEST POST from Chateau G Pato

In today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape, innovation is the key to success. With technology continually reshaping industries, companies must embrace digital disruption to remain competitive. Digital disruptors are those forward-thinking individuals and organizations that actively challenge traditional business models, transforming industries and creating new opportunities. In this article, we explore two case studies to understand what it takes to be a successful digital disruptor.

Case Study 1: Uber – Revolutionizing the Transportation Industry

Uber, founded in 2009, has disrupted the traditional taxi industry by leveraging technology and creating a peer-to-peer ridesharing platform. By simply connecting drivers with passengers through a user-friendly mobile app, Uber has revolutionized the way people commute.

One of the key factors behind Uber’s success is the integration of technology into their business model. They capitalized on the widespread adoption of smartphones and built an app that provides ease of access and convenience to users. Additionally, Uber’s use of GPS technology enabled them to optimize ride routes, resulting in quicker and more efficient trips, which became a significant competitive advantage.

Moreover, Uber’s disruption of the industry was driven by its ability to identify pain points. By recognizing the challenges faced by commuters, such as long queues, unreliable service, and lack of affordability, Uber was able to provide a seamless and cost-effective alternative. They turned a fragmented and highly regulated industry into a user-centric service that offered reliable transportation at the tap of a button.

Case Study 2: Netflix – Transforming the Entertainment Industry

Netflix, founded in 1997 as a DVD rental-by-mail service, disrupted the traditional video rental industry and eventually transformed the entertainment landscape. Recognizing the potential of streaming technology, Netflix transitioned from mailing DVDs to offering an online streaming platform, which has now become a household name.

The success of Netflix can be attributed to its innovative approach to content delivery. By capitalizing on technological advancements and increasing internet speeds, they facilitated on-demand access to a vast library of movies and TV shows. This not only eliminated the need for physical stores but also provided subscribers with the freedom to watch what they want, when they want.

Furthermore, Netflix’s disruptive nature can be seen in its investment in original content. By leveraging data analytics and user preferences, they have been able to create highly engaging and binge-worthy series like “Stranger Things” and “House of Cards.” This strategic move has allowed them to not only compete with traditional media giants but also establish themselves as a major player in the entertainment industry.

What it Takes to be a Successful Digital Disruptor?

Both Uber and Netflix exemplify the characteristics required to be a successful digital disruptor. Here are some key takeaways:

1. Technological Integration: Embrace technology and leverage it to create innovative products and solutions. Digital disruptors constantly seek ways to utilize technology to improve user experience, increase efficiency, and disrupt existing markets.

2. Customer Focus: Identify pain points and seek ways to address them. Successful disruptors prioritize the user experience, understanding the needs and desires of their target audience to create seamless and user-centric solutions.

3. Agility and Adaptability: Disruption requires the ability to adapt to changing circumstances and market conditions. Successful digital disruptors remain agile, constantly innovating and evolving their business strategies and models.

4. Data-Driven Decision Making: Utilize data analytics to understand user behavior, preferences, and market trends. Data-driven insights enable disruptors to make informed decisions and drive innovation in their respective industries.

The digital disruption landscape is constantly evolving, and staying ahead of the curve is crucial for success. By embracing technology, focusing on customer needs, remaining agile, and leveraging data, upcoming disruptors have the potential to reshape industries and create remarkable opportunities.

Image credit: Unsplash

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How to Identify Areas for Improvement with Human-Centered Design

How to Identify Areas for Improvement with Human-Centered Design

GUEST POST from Chateau G Pato

Human-centered design (HCD) is an approach to product and service design that puts people’s needs at the center of the design process. HCD is a holistic process that looks at the whole customer experience, from researching customer needs and wants to prototyping and iterating product or service designs. It helps companies to create products and services that are user-friendly, efficient, and meet customer expectations.

Identifying areas for improvement with human-centered design requires you to analyze every aspect of the customer experience. Here are some steps to take in order to identify areas for improvement:

1. Research Your Customers – The first step is to research your customers. You need to understand who your customers are, what their needs and wants are, and how they interact with your product or service. Interviewing customers, assessing feedback, and conducting surveys are some of the best ways to gain insight into customer needs and wants.

2. Analyze Your Processes – Next, you need to analyze your processes. Look at how your processes are currently working, and identify any areas for improvement. This could include anything from the way customer inquiries are handled, to the way customer feedback is collected.

3. Identify Pain Points – After researching your customers and analyzing your processes, it’s time to identify pain points. These are areas where customers are having difficulty, or where there is a disconnect between customer needs and the product or service. Identifying pain points is essential to improving the customer experience.

4. Create Solutions – Once you’ve identified the areas where improvement is needed, it’s time to create solutions. With HCD, this involves creating prototypes and testing them with customers to ensure they meet customer needs and expectations. Implementing the solutions and collecting feedback is also important in order to ensure the solutions are working as intended.

Airbnb – Improving the Booking Experience

One successful example of HCD in action is Airbnb. Airbnb applied HCD to their platform and identified several areas where improvement was needed. This included the design of their platform, the customer experience, and the overall product offering. Airbnb implemented a range of improvements, including simplifying the booking process, improving the search functionality, and adding a range of new features. These improvements ultimately resulted in a better customer experience and increased user engagement.

Uber – Pimp My (Taxi) Ride

Another example of Human-centered design in action is Uber. Uber identified areas for improvement by analyzing customer feedback and conducting research. This included simplifying the user interface, improving the ride-hailing experience, adding features such as safety tools, and implementing a range of rewards for drivers and riders. These improvements have helped to increase customer satisfaction and engagement, and have helped to grow the business.


By applying HCD to identify areas for improvement, companies can create better products and services that meet customer needs and expectations. It is an invaluable tool for creating user-friendly and efficient products and services.

Image credit: Pixabay

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